Eur. Phys. J. D 75, 278 (2021)
Free energies of triply and quadruply degenerate electron ladder spectra
Minghao Li1, Zehua Sun2, and Klavs Hansen3,*
1 School of Science, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072, China
2 Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada
3 Department of Physics, Center for Joint Quantum Studies, School of Science, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072, China
* Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The electronic free energies in metal clusters are calculated based on a simple ladder spectrum for the level degeneracies three and four, and compared with the known results for degeneracies one and two. The low-temperature and the asymptotic high-temperature results for free energy differences of particles with different electron numbers are generalized to ladder spectra of any degeneracy. Remarkably, free energy differences do not approach zero at high energies for size-independent Fermi energies.