Phys. Rev. D 101, 044059 (2020) arXiv link
Schwarzschild black holes have the largest size
H. Lü1,* and Hong-Da Lyu2,†
1 Center for Joint Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China
2 Physics Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
We consider static black holes in Einstein gravity and study parameters characterizing the black hole size, namely the radii of the horizon R+, photon sphere Rph, and black hole shadow Rsh. We find a sequence of inequalities 32R+≤Rph≤1√3Rsh≤3M, where M is the black hole mass. These are consistent with and beyond the previously known upper bounds in literature. The Schwarzschild black hole saturates all the inequalities, making it the biggest of all for a given mass. The inequalities include an upper bound of entropy for any quantum system with a given energy. We also point out that some black holes satisfying the dominant energy condition can trap photons to form a stable photon shield outside the event horizon, but the shadow hides it from an observer at infinity.