Phys. Rev. D 99, 104057 (2019) arXiv link
Emergent universe scenario, bouncing universes, and cyclic universes in degenerate massive gravity
Shou-Long Li1,2,3,*, H. Lü3,†, Hao Wei2,‡, Puxun Wu1,§, and Hongwei Yu1,∥
1 Department of Physics and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effect and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
2 School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
3 Center for Joint Quantum Studies, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China
We consider alternative inflationary cosmologies in massive gravity with degenerate reference metrics and study the feasibilities of the emergent universe scenario, bouncing universes, and cyclic universes. We focus on the construction of the Einstein static universe, classes of exact solutions of bouncing universes, and cyclic universes in degenerate massive gravity. We further study the stabilities of the Einstein static universe against both homogeneous and inhomogeneous scalar perturbations and give the parameters region for a stable Einstein static universe.